Removing old kernels

check the kernel you’re using:

$ uname -r


Do NOT delete that kernel!


List the old kernels:

$ sudo dpkg --list 'linux-image*'|awk '{ if ($1=="ii") print $2}'|grep -v `uname -r`



Remove the old kernels one by one:

$ sudo apt-get purge linux-image-3.19.0-25-generic


Remove the packages that are not needed anymore:

$ sudo apt-get autoremove


Update the grub kernel list:

$ sudo update-grub


References :
Safest way to clean up boot partition – Ubuntu 14.04LTS-x64


This is one of the first few photos that I took that I liked.

This was taken early morning, the first of January, New Year’s day,  some decades ago. The mist is actually the smoke left over from the previous night’s New Year fireworks and revelry. The guy on the bicycle is what one can call a newspaper delivery boy on the way towards the Malacañang area.  One can still see the barbed-wire barricades further down the street guarding the entrance to the Palace gates.

This was photo taken on film — the dark patches on the left is from its deterioration because I’m bad at keeping this thing.

force https

Backup your .htaccess file.

In the .htaccess  file add this to the top:

# Always use https for secure connections
# Replace '' with your domain name
# (as it appears on your SSL certificate)
RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} 80
RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

Important! Replace with your own domain name.

That  should do it (worked for me)

Changing directory or file permissions or ownerships

Recursively change ownership of directories or files

find /www -type d -exec chown root:root {} \;

find /www -type -f -exec chown root:root {} \;

1: find directories under /www and execute the chown command on each directory found and change their ownership to root
2: find files under /www and execute the chown command on each directory found and change their ownership to root


Recursively change permissions for a directory or file

find /www -type d -exec chmod 644 {} \;

find /www -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;


Your password – change it

I get a number of reports that there are attempts to login to email accounts. Those are most likely bots that try to guess your email password. If you’re stuck in the 80s or 90s then this means that your password is literally just a single word with at least 8 characters.

Time to change it. Seriously.

Change it from a password to a passphrase — the one that’s stuck in your head since December last year. Or invent one that you know you’ll never forget. Make your phrase at least 17 characters in your own language or dialect. Just be sure you won’t forget it.

Too many passphrases to remember? Use a password manager that works for you.  lifehacker has a recently updated list of their top 5 password managers. Pick your poison.